The information provided here is intended to complement work that has already been published by providing details that we have found helpful. This page is in no way intended to replace on-the-job training. Be sure to read all Safety Data Sheets and understand the hazards of this type of chemistry before proceeding.

Use(s) of Material

WO3 is a plasmonic material, with the plasmon resulting from oxygen vacancies within the structure. 

Chemical List

Oleylamine, 70% (Sigma-Aldrich)
Oleic acid (Sigma)
Tungsten (IV) Chloride (Strem)

Equipment List

Schlenk line with nitrogen gas (argon works too)
Air-cooled condenser
25 or 50mL round bottom flask
Teflon stir bar
Heating mantle
Temperature controller (Digisense is our favorite)

Reaction Set-Up

Notes from Foundry Friends

Reactions like this are typically involve a degassing step, such as pulling vacuum on the reactants at ~110C for 30min-2hrs. In this particular reaction, degassing prior to heating seems to have no influence on the reaction. As a result, a degas step is really only done when the solvents are old and a larger than usual water content is suspected.


Cuvettes with WO3 in hexane (pictured), toluene, or TCE should be a very pale blue

Absorbance taken in hexane

After a 1hr reaction time, rods are 25-28nm by TEM.


J.-W. Seo, Y.-W. Jun, S. J. Ko, J. Cheon, J. Phys. Chem. B. 2005, 5389-5391.

T. M. Mattox, A. Bergerud, A. Agrawal, D. J. Milliron, Chem. Mater. 2014, 26, 1779-1784.

Page Contributors

Tracy Mattox
Molecular Foundry Staff